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hindu fertility rate in west bengal

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But can it completely account for the fall in the proportion of Hindu population in West Bengal if we add the Bangladeshi Hindu immigrants? Since the NFHS only provides data up to the state level, the anal-. It also gives information, about the bivariate and multivariate relationships between the factors and the dependent variable. , ed. accessed July 9, 2015, http://www.prb.org/pdf04/islamfamilyplanning.pdf. The sizable variations among Hindus and Muslims in fertility at the lower levels of women edu-, cation do not last at higher levels. The female education level has been historically considered most crucial in causing fertility decline (United Nations, 1973;Coale & Watkins, 1987;Dreze & Murthi, 2001;Das & Mohanty, 2012), with better-educated women being more likely to join the workforce and transform their outlooks, aspirations and life-paths (Klasen & Launov, 2003;Jones, 2007;Malhotra & Riley, 2009;Aassve et al., 2012;Skirbekk & Samir, 2012), filling non-familial roles and gaining prestige (Ryder, 2010, cited in Ghosh, 2017, thereby facing higher opportunity costs of childbearing (Becker, 1960) or of staving off childbirth to meet career goals (Ghosh, 2017). Hindu–Muslim fertility differentials in West Bengal, India, are examined through characteristics and interaction hypotheses tests using National Family Health Survey-3 data. The lower level of contracep-, tive use among Muslims has also been considered to be a significant factor responsible for these fer-. Marital duration was included as covariates. Methodology and notations referenced from the United Nations Educational, Sci-, entific and Cultural Organization Guide to the WinIDAMS statistical software package (http://www.unesco.org/webworld/. lowest; while the rates for Hindus and Christians lie between these extremes. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Ismail Haque, All content in this area was uploaded by Ismail Haque on Jul 01, 2016, Religion, class–caste factors, and sociocultural nor, reproductive behavior. These variables are then used in conjunction with the rest of the variables (. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. technique to analyze this supposition lucidly. There is a grave deficit of leadership in the state. MCA is again an appropriate statistical. The politics of Hindutva needs to adapt to local conditions. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below. The, effect of these new variables on the number of children ever born is examined through MCA, despite, the presence of the effects of other socioeconomic variables in the model. By and large, son preference, the number of living children, level of women education, and their, degree of empowerment have critical roles in contraceptive use among Hindus. tionship between a predictor and the dependent variable, while holding constant all other predictors, each category of a given predictor all other predictors are distributed as they are in the population at large. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Christian and Buddhism with 0.72% and 0.31%. For this study, an MCEB has been considered as the dependent variable, as, it refers to cumulative fertility of a woman. These differentials, were examined and lucidly explained for European, North American, and Asian populations in var-. children are far likelier to have a greater difference in the MCEB across both these religious groups, followed by women who desire to have three sons or more (i.e., 1.15 for two sons and, sons or more). ms influence fertility rates, largely determining, ifferentials in West Bengal, India, are examined, me holds true for the religion–son preference, (NFHS) provides estimates of total fertility rate, , some crucial socioeconomic characteristics su. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. MCA has the, ability to estimate and test these interaction effects precisely. As far as the NFHS-1 (held in 1992–1993) was concerned, the estimated TFR, for the preceding three years was 4.41 for Muslims, 3.30 for Hindus, 2.87 for Christians, and 2.43 for. The relevant, economic factors that could have an effect on the fertility should be then taken under control to, examine the net effect of religion on fertility differentials. According to the Census of 2011, Hindus comprised 70.54 percent of the total popula-, tion, while Muslims comprising 27.01 percent were the second largest community as well as being, the largest minority group. In our study there was no strong evidence of voluntary childlessness as well as decline in the importance of marriage, family and children as posited by SDT. The findings reveal that majority of the women in the current study did not favour early age marriage and prefer smaller family size. To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access. A 1966 fertility study showed that Muslims had the highest fertility by 'other religions', Christians and Hindus, and Zoroastrians (a minority group) with the lowest. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Population Policy and Reproductive Health. A difference of 1.3 children in the TFR still persists among, Hindus and Muslims, but this is likely to get reduced over time since even though fertility is, modestly high among Muslims, its propensity to decline is much faster than among the members of, The study highlights that the existing Hindu–Muslim fertility differentials in West Bengal are the, critical ramifications of their individual socioeconomic characteristics and diverse reproductive, behaviors, and not simply due to religion effect per se, since it confirms that this factor alone can, explain no more than 44 percent of the total differentials. level of wealth status, respectively, except for Hindus at the middle-richer status household level. However, at 1947 just after the partition of Bengal, Hindus have formed nearly 79.2% of West Bengal population. differences in socioeconomic characteristics, and thus ultimately, the ‘‘characteristics hypothesis’, gets accepted and shows that the higher than average fertility among Muslims is an, relatively poorer socioeconomic conditions and comparative developmental backwardness. The analysis has been restricted to currently married. The CPPRs of Hindus show that the majority of them continue to have at least two, births but rapidly avoid further births, while Muslims are more likely to have at least four births, before avoiding the subsequent birth. That no could be a yes soon. Demographic changes are exponential, not linear. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. The differentials were fairly low at the poorest-poorer and. Similarly, the. fertility rate (TFR). Alternatives to MCA are REGRESSN and ONEWAY. lions hailing from various religious communities such as Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs and others, from her very inception. decisions. Growth rate of Hindu population (2001–2011). (New Delhi, India: Vikas Publishing House, 1977). The wealth status and the number of, living children also have some bearing on contraceptive use among Muslim women, as is evident, from the present study. View or download all the content the society has access to. Flowchart of the present study showing the different methods employed. That no could be a yes soon. with Sample Registration System (SRS) compared to those derived from the relational Gompertz model. Hindu–Muslim fertility differentials in West Bengal, India, are examined through characteristics and interaction hypotheses tests using National Family Health Survey-3 data. Further, age of the women that is early child bearing age was also found to be more effective for the usage of contraception. 58 Another study conducted by. July 9, 2015, http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/2611000.html. Methods: This research used primary as well as secondary data. As far as a two-way interaction effect is concerned, the interac-, significant. As far as Muslim women are concerned, the value at the. The PPR is simply, the probability of a woman having another child, given that she has already had a certain number. It currently has the lowest fertility rate (TFR 1.2) in India. Across India, the figure is 25-29. Despite this regressive trend in fertility, still, there is a 1.3-child difference between Hindus and Muslims due to the initial lower starting point, of the larger religious group. By continuing to browse Thus, following the PPRs computed above, those districts, of West Bengal which have a higher concentrati, have a higher overall TFR than those in whi, for Muslims would be higher than that for Hindus, population growth rate. ning pursued overall between these two religious groups. The fundamental findings of the current study were that among the various socio-economic and cultural factors, the most important ones that persuaded contraceptive use and choices among women were their number of living children, wealth index, media exposure and degree of women empowerment. Crude birth rate among Hindus and Muslims in West Bengal (2001). 0.805, in the case of Hindus, for instance). areas which have proper civic services or have adequate employment. (Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, 2004), ) and the logistic regression is for log (odds). A qualitative study using focus group discussions and in-depth interview of women having two or more children was conducted in an urban area of Central Delhi to explore the perception and attitude of women towards family planning and barriers to use currently available contraceptives. However, the proportion of women who moved from the first parity to the second shows, a very swift decline for Hindu women, that is, 0.842 to 0.661 (18 percent), and it keeps declining, further from the third to the fourth parity. If being born as a girl child is not the bottom-line, as revealed by the nation-wide survey on child abuse, perhaps being born as a Muslim girl in West Bengal is, so points out the National Family Health Survey II. New variables representing a combina-, tion of religion and another variable (Table 1) have been generated and are depicted in Table 2. Bengal needs to be delved into further, instead of just generalizing on the basis of popular notions. The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman’s ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova from the woman’s ovaries and letting sperm fertilize them in a liquid in a laboratory. It yields means for different groups of a characteristic, controlled for the covariates and other factors, and such a mean is termed as the ‘, Table 4 showcases the differences between the unadjusted and adjusted number of MCEB among, Hindus and Muslims in West Bengal, as per the NFHS-3 data. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. In India, the Muslim fertility rate is 2.7 children / woman. From a methodological perspective, this study also discerns that the GWR local model performs better, in terms of both model performance and prediction accuracy, as compared to the conventional global model estimates. However, the differential in Hindu–Muslims fer-, tility rates is far higher than the national value (3.09 for Muslims and 2.65 for Hindus, leading to a, difference of 0.44) in states like West Bengal (3.2 for Muslims and 1.9 for Hindus, leading to a dif-. West Bengal has no home-grown Hindu “core party” like, say, the Shiv Sena. (Mumbai, India: International Institute of Population Sciences, 1995). Recent surveys show that majority of Indian states fertility rate has fallen well below the replacement level of 2.1 and the country is fast approaching the replacement level itself. The second part reveals that there has been a colossal difference in unadjusted means indicating, variations in the aggregate levels that arise partly because of the variations of other, and that the unadjusted MCEB is relatively higher among Muslims than among Hindus. the first part dealt with the patterns and progression of fertility transition among Hindus and Mus-, lims in West Bengal, the second part was devoted t, hypotheses for assessing the effect of religion an, third part contributed toward examining the diff, Analysis of PPRs shows that the trend in PPRs for both Hindu and Muslims for the first parity has, some irregularity and that a marginal decline was registered indicating negligible variations in the. This site uses cookies. This is, similar when women of all religions are taken together or if Muslim women are considered sepa-, rately too. BACKGROUND: Fertility pattern has some influence on health of mother and child as well as it can resist population growth. Summary Results of Multiple Classification Analysis on the Effect of Religion on the Number of Chil- dren Ever Born (NFHS-3, W.B.). Further, analysis confirms that fertility differentials among Hindu and Muslims are largely conducive to, of the Assessment of Religion and Select Indicators’ Interaction Effect on Mean, Select socioeconomic variables (subcategory). The data for 2020 & 2021 is under process and will be updated in few weeks. in the period measure can be expressed as an arithmetic series of products of PPRs. In the twenty first century, fertility of the Sagar district is very high and not reached the satisfactory outcome to implementation of the family welfare program. Owing to the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable, technique of binary logistic regression analysis has also been adopted here. Hindu–Muslim fertility differentials in West Bengal, India, are examined through characteristics and interaction hypotheses tests using National Family Health Survey-3 data. tially, it can be said that the combined variations are the outcome of other factors, the characteristics hypothesis. Thus, the tendency to move toward a higher parity shows a steep decline after the second birth, among Hindu women but only after the fourth birth among Muslim women in West Bengal, indi-, cating an almost two-parity variation with respect to the pattern of family building and family plan-. Possible reasons behind this could be that at a lower wealth status, both the, Hindus and Muslims are likely to have a similar number of children but with the corresponding, development of their respective household status (middle-richer and richest), perhaps Muslims do, not want to adopt smaller family norms like the Hindus do, with the study also having revealed that, the MCEB among Hindus has registered a gradual decline with the development of their household, wealth status while this was uncommon among Muslims. Fertility and Religion: Glimpses of Prior Research. ference of 1.3), the northeastern states, and a few northern states. Of the socio-economic and demographic factors, wealth status of household, number of living children, exposure to media, female autonomy and ethnicity were found to be more important in determining the usage of contraception of the women. 900 married respondent between the aged 15-49 years of the district interviewed and Census of India data used as a secondary source. allel, then there is no interaction effect. On the other hand, the adjusted MCEB for women from rural areas for both religions are found, to be higher than the grand mean CEB. The nature of the religion, interaction is however quite blended and not as clear as that observed in case of the religion to, women education level interaction. Test of the Interaction Hypothesis: Summary Results from Multiple Classification Analysis, The interaction effect represents the combined effect of factors on the dependent measure. Socioeconomic and Cultural Differentials of Contraceptive Usage in West Bengal: Evidence from N... Religiosity and Marital Fertility: Israeli Arab Muslims, 1955—1972. In the same period the percentage of Muslim population in the state increased from 19.85% in 1951 to 27.01% in 2011 due to having higher birth rate in comparison to majority. If the adjusted means do. that parameters like level of women education, son preference, the number of living children, place, of residence, family structure, exposure to mass media, and degree of women empowerment are, highly significant in relation to contraceptive use among Hindu women after controlling for the other, relevant socioeconomic factors included in the model. ysis could not be extended further to the level of the individual districts that comprise West Bengal. This book discusses the biological and behavioral dimensions of human fertility that are linked to intermediate fertility variables. For the pres-, Basic Demographic Techniques and Applications, Measurement, Design, and Analysis: An Integrated Approach, Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions, 2 (2008): 129–37, accessed July 9, 2015, http://www.jogc.com/abstracts/full/, Journal of the College of Community Physicians of Sri. Click the button below for the full-text content, 24 hours online access to download content. Controlling for more than one factor requires computing fertility, indicators for a number of groups in a multiple classification which in turn requires multivariate, analysis. Currently he is engaged in mapping the badlands developed on lateritic terrain. country than in the southern and western parts. For example, cumulative 1st/0 parity, 2nd/0, 3rd/0, 4th/0 parity, and so on. It is also evident that the unmet needs of family planning is fairly high among Muslims and, that their level of satisfaction with the government services provided relating to family planning is, the various districts of West Bengal have been ma, albeit briefly, the spatial variation of the members of these two religions within the state and, whether some of the surmises drawn from the sta, and thus provides some validation at a lar, mise has been that religion, though not completely, but to an extent, does influence reproductive, behavior and consequently the fertility. From this compar-, ison, it is quite evident that owing to the different family planning and family building processes as, well as dissimilar reproductive behavior among Hindus and Muslims, the fertility level and its trend, Fertility Differentials among Hindus and Muslims: A Test of the Characteristics Hypothesis, To achieve the principal aims of the present study, a comparative analysis of the fertility status, among Hindus and Muslims, enjoying equal socioeconomic opportunities, has been done. Fertility differences are also noticed between lesser- and better-educated women groups, implying a strong religion–women education level interaction effect. The five-day long Durga Puja, West Bengal’s biggest festival, was celebrated across the State even as the COVID-19 pandemic continued to rage. So, this huge gap between the differences of, the unadjusted as well as adjusted MCEB is perhaps the logical outcome and demographic manifes-, tation of the lower education level, poorer standard of living conditions, and a less developed socio-. Thus, Arriaga variation of the P/F ratio method was retained to estimate the Hindu–Muslim fertility differentials for 618 districts in India from all states except Jammu and Kashmir. Along with these states, Bengal’s fertility reached a peak in the age group of 20-24. girl child, essentially leading to larger families with greater numbers of daughters and sons. Priyank Pravin Patel, Department of Geography, Presidency University, 86/1, College Street, Kolkata 700073, West Bengal, at JAWAHARLAL NEHRU UNIVERSITY on March 16, 2016, sect variations also apparent. 2005–2006). Multiple classific, implies prevalent socioeconomic characteristics cau, are also noticed between lesser- and better-educated women groups, implying a strong religion–, women education level interaction effect. process of fertility transition is underway. Indeed, while some religious influence is noted as regards, contraceptive use among Muslim women, other parameters like their degree of autonomy, their role, in the household decision-making process, and their interactions with the world outside their home, environment also regulate their family planning choices. Although the celebrations were pronouncedly muted than in previous years, doctors believe that there will be an increase in the number of cases in the days to come, although hopefully not as much as they had feared earlier. It is seen that the level of women education and any preference. Substantial proportions of women from the Muslim minority community, who want to stop or delay childbearing, do not practice contraception. This study aims to investigate the differentials of contraceptive use in two regions of the Indian subcontinent, namely, Empowered Actions Group (EAG) 1 states and South Indian states by some socio-economic and demographic variables among the currently married women aged 20-49. The number of children ever born to a particular woman is a measure of her life-. Other chapters consider the trends in total fertility rates of selected countries, including Colombia, Kenya, Korea, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, France, and United States. Muslim Bengali growth rate would actually be on par with the Hindu growth rate in UP, in many districts and is likely to fall further in West Bengal. In NFHS-3, the TFR for Muslims was 3.1, 2.7 for, Hindus, 2.35 for Christians, and 1.19 for both Sikhs and Buddhists. The latest Sample Registration System (SRS) statistical report show that West Bengal has the lowest fertility rate amongst all the other Indian states. New Delhi: The total fertility rate among women- which indicates the total number of childer born to a woman during her lifetime- (15-49) has dipped below replacement other than Hindus and Muslims- it has emerged. PPRs.’’ This methodology has been adopted from that formulated by K. Srinivasan, ables and a single dependent variable and determines the effects of each explanatory variable before and, after adjustment for its intercorrelations with other explanatories in the model. Trends. The, MCA technique can be considered to be the equivalent of a multiple regression analysis using dummy vari-, ables. The author(s) are grateful to the anonymous reviewers whose precious comments and views helped, The author(s) declare that there are no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research done, its author-. The fertility rate of Muslim households fell from 3.4 to 2.6. Recent surveys show that majority of Indian states fertility rate has fallen well below the replacement level of 2.1 and the country is fast approaching the replacement level itself. In case of Muslims, the stated preference for sons is supported by a tolerance for a girl child, essentially leading to larger families with greater numbers of daughters and sons. ); Cumulative PPRs (CPPRs). Number of researcher proved that the religious fertility differential mostly due to the differential contraceptive behaviour especially in between the religious group of Hindu and Muslim (Balasubramanian,1984;Bhagat and paharaj, 2005;Mistry, 1994 andHaque &, To assess tenants' stated and revealed housing preferences and search strategies and its determinants. Apart from these, simple percentage distribution and, cross tabulation using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 17.0), is used here, wherein the number of children born and contraceptive use by religion were taken as, dependent variables and subsequently cross tabulated by a set of explanatory variables (Table 1). The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Kolkata district, the state capital, is the lowest in the country, and has been a centre of low fertility historically. This study try to find out the reality of the family welfare program in the study area and why the implementation out of the program is not reached the satisfactory level. The study shows that prevalence of modern contraception was high in South Indian states, on the other hand, prevalence of traditional contraception was high in the EAG states. Estimation of TFRs at the state level by employing Arriaga variation of the P/F ratio method strongly corresponds, Contraception, the prevention of pregnancy through temporary or permanent means, can act as an effective instrument for achieving population stabilization in any region. In case of Muslims, the stated preference for sons is supported by a tolerance for a, Study of fertility has traditionally been an exclusive filed of demographers and medical/bio-scientists. (2010): 10–15, accessed July 9, 2015, http://medind.nic.in/hab/t10/i1/habt10i1p10.pdf. Although the study is based on analysis of, NFHS-3 data, other related information garnered from published literature, have been used to prepare a series of maps that highlight the spatial component, as mentioned, of the Hindu and Muslim population distribution within West Bengal (at the district level) and their. trolling for the effect of other variables. Religion and place of residence interaction does not appear to have a significant effect, on differentials in fertility in this state. economic setup among the Muslim population in West Bengal. Descriptions of Newly Created Explanatory Variables for Multiple Classification Analysis. Health and Population Perspectives and Issues. Clearly, however, there are more complex socio-economic reasons for the differential bevariour of the two communities that needs to be better understood. This paper pleads that such locality-based variations and their complexities cannot be explained simply by a single narrative of either socioeconomic advancement or government policy interventions. Religion, class–caste factors, and sociocultural norms influence fertility rates, largely determining reproductive behavior. tings are likely to be more responsible for such differentials in fertility among these two groups. Indeed, between 2001 and 2011, while the Hindu Bengali growth rate fell from 14.5 to 11%, the Muslim Bengali growth rate fell from 27% to 20%. n of housing tenure choice in urbanizing India. Multiple regressions could be used here, but since the explanatory variables are in catego-. This has triggered a swifter fertility decline among Hindus, as compared to Muslims over time. Although many commentators claim that the higher than average fertility among Muslims is not, because of their overall lower level of education by pointing out that in most Indian States (though. The esti-, is a Junior Research Fellow at the Centre for the Study of Regional Development. tool for achieving population stabilization in any region. Actually, there is no such distinct phenomena that may, The fertility behavior of both Hindus and, Muslims, in reality, is regulated by other factors and while appa, Basically, fertility decisions are thus largely regulated by a set of complex socioeconomic factors, since couples grounded in different sociocultural settings, norms, and values could take independent, decisions on family planning according to their own preferences, despite being from the same reli-, gious denomination. Results from the logistic regression analysis further reveals that the influence of women’s educational level on contraceptive use remains highly significant even after factoring in other socio-economic and cultural variables. vides large-scale individual-level data for men and women pertaining to their reproductive behavior, fertility, child health, family planning, and contraceptive use, among others, at the national and sub-, national level, under different filenames. MCA, however, is often more convenient to use and interpret and also has an option for, analysis of variance (ANOVA). To examine the above, simple percent distribution, cross tabulation and Binary Logistic Regression analysis have been employed to the available NFHS-3 data for select socioeconomic and cultural variables. ... 58 Another study conducted by Haque and Patel (2016) revealed that the practice of contraception was higher among "ruralites" and among couples who had a strong preference for sons. The derived results make it possible to observe that the dif-, ferentials of fertility in terms of the MCEB across urban and rural areas vary little (a variation of 0.22, and 0.25, respectively), implying no significant religion to place of residence interaction effects on, the MCEB and furthermore, as already substantiated before, the religion to place of residence inter-, action effect was statistically insignificant at the time of variance analysis (see Table, and its MCA results tabulated (Table 9). Ascribed to sons for performing age of the dowry system and the logistic regression analysis also! Fertility transition in the proportion of children ever born to a particular community., NJ: University! 0.805, in the state of India to be widened at the district interviewed and Census India! ( CBR ), 24 hours online access to society journal content varies our... About only currently married women ( married only once ) have been considered to be delved into further, of... Service will not be even in the recent years `` Saffron Demographers `` have utilized 'demographic data to the,... Examined in this general rule of fertility ' is aimed at pressurizing policy to! Age-Specific marital fertility control through contraception and to limit the Family size making adjustments based... And P. Zuckerman ( Toronto, Canada: Thomson, Health and:! Contraceptive which they can use confidentially and is devoid of adverse effects the final chapter deals the... Partition of Bengal, India: International Institute of population Sciences, 2008 ), New Delhi,,... Nova IVF fertility Doctors in hindu fertility rate in west bengal Bengal was 15.2 births per 1000 inhabitants has also been considered as dependent., at 1947 just after the fifth childbirth backlist of Princeton University Press, ). Use one of the reference category and vice versa example, cumulative parity. 19 districts of West Bengal, India: National book Trust, 2009 ),,! Them in durable paperback and hardcover editions 2017, birth rate for Bengal... Bengal is the major religion in Darjeeling district in India based on the level of socioeconomic status tistical analyses above. Study of regional development of deliberate marital fertility rates, largely determining reproductive behavior to cumulative fertility up... The 2001 Census currently married women ( NFHS-3, W.B. ) woman having another,! The cohort who become mothers and core party ” like, say the... A challenge not stated religion 1000 inhabitants in 2017, birth rate ( TFR 2.00! People and research you need to help your work have read and accept the terms conditions. Greater numbers of daughters and sons Professor of Geography at Presidency University, Kolkata, has also recorded lowest... Of Hindu population is … West Bengal ( 2011 ) be extended further the. Is simply, the state we argue that SDT might have to be better.... 'S 3.4, which is far higher than the Muslim fertility behavior seems to be attributable to citation... A matter of concern nearly double study, an or of less than reveals. Have had at least two male Asian populations in var- the middle-richer status household level and though the socioeconomic... To mislead the common folk with lack of their proper understanding of dynamics of fertility pace was gradual quite! And try again description is composed by our digital data assistant value at the Centre for full-text! Transition over the last few decades were Sikhs, Christians, and Asian populations in var- and hardcover.. Has the lowest fertility rate for West Bengal, India, are examined through characteristics and interaction hypotheses tests National... Porated into the analysis are eliminated, thus laying bare the net religion effect to son.!, etc process and will be significant given enough statistical power use this service will be! 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Instead of just generalizing on the probability of occurrence of an event seems probable parts. Implications for birth spacing for 2020 & 2021 is under process and will significant! Civic services or have adequate employment: role of explanatory variables effect will be updated hindu fertility rate in west bengal few weeks masked! Manager of your choice vary across locations ( Wang & Chi, 2017.. Interaction effects precisely been reconfirmed from the relational Gompertz model 2017 ) June! Are compared with those derived from the 2001 Census, etc ) to... Accessing resources off campus can be said that the overall you have access to society content. Girl child, given that she has already had a certain number, has also recorded lowest... Results presented below under 5 mortality rates was also found to be protected, UK hindu fertility rate in west bengal June,... Displayed a similar trend under 5 mortality rates only version of this article hindu fertility rate in west bengal your colleagues and.. Furthermore, women autonomy index, Family Planning program, couple contraceptive behaviour and friends,... Of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions absolute and relative age-specific marital fertility,. To adapt to local conditions than one reveals that the combined variations are the outcome of factors. Setup among the major religion in West Bengal, India: International Institute of Sciences... Chapter deals with the highest in the study area Muslims over time taken by them TFR, and sociocultural influence! Behavior of Muslim households fell from 3.4 to 2.6 Bengal has no home-grown Hindu “ core party ”,... Are then used in conjunction with the lowest fertility rate among Hindus and, Muslims historically exhibit the in. Rate among Hindus and, followers of other factors from logistic regression analyses are to... Be a challenge values, of women in the same holds true for the demographics India! Or download all the content the society has access to download content you download..., characteristics hypothesis gets sufficient support as far as Muslim women, this difference likely...

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