�'���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'��"2DJ�HO�g���3�S����TzFz*=#=����J�HO�g���3�z2���֑��"s0���1��_�g�>×�����%|�/�3| ��K�_�g�>×�ED Q�˚��c�\eu�C��/�~J��e ѺϬTw(�D�2��Cy{��c2����V�D*?m������� ������0n���d�ѯ{y���M�ݸ��-� Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes. Details". Order this publication �ҩp*� Though the extent to which the system operates varies greatly, it is nonetheless found in some form in languages… : The class markers which appear on the adjectives and verbs may differ from the noun prefixes: In this example, the verbal prefix a- and the pronominal prefix wa- are in concordance with the noun prefix m-: they all express class 1 despite of their different forms. 0000007448 00000 n Bantu noun classes. 0000156103 00000 n Nouns of Bantu languages are classified grammatically according to prefixes whether overt or null, and the concordial agreement associated with them. The distinction between genders and nominal classes is blurred still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili's rafiki. Of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact of the way linguists label things. Zulu, for example, has… Read More; Gur languages. H�\�]k�@���|��l/�ΜsfZ������`��Xc���o�1���I�_Lf�f��ڳ�}��6�ݾ�!���C��k~k��״��������ٸx{9��a���b�f?ƃ��pqw�����ٷ��C۽��_���Ͷ�}�'rwvs�\�&��}��_w��fӲ�M3oϗ�q��?/}vaʞ2��ɧ~W�a׽�b1?K�x?�"w�ǟ�^����0�.���y�/�IBz$�I+R"��GREz"�I+�3�$���)�9iM�gR ��h-��J�$#"A�II���'�<>��� >�O�y|���|���_�'�"E)��HD�( RD�" ��=y�`K�Ҵ �4 Applying the method to Luganda gives ten noun classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural forms. H��WYo�F~ׯ�G For instance, in Swahili the word rafiki ‘friend’ belongs to the class 9 and its "plural form" is marafiki of the class 6, even if most nouns of the 9 class have the plural of the class 10. Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes.Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. The system of noun classes in Bantu seems to be a system of this type, yet a specification of its semantic domain and of the semantic con-tents of the noun classes has eluded investigators for well over a century (Bleek 1862/1869). Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. Price: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and in some cases MOMS (VAT), will be added. Even though he notes that such proposals for individual languages sometimes seem viable, he holds that a unified account of the semantics of noun classes across Bantu is much more problematic. Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic … H�\��n�@н����"���b !���<4�| �Mi0�!�~�r�� |�]��e�^4�v3�n�u>��xu��8��r~������8fy�c}�v��O�)[����r���x8g��[|K'/����Ἇ�������-�o��+��xuK�^�!�D�v���)�Ž�i3�����)����6EWܿ����!^�]�����2��n��^�,�����u�C�s7g����tH9gΑ�Y�s@VfE~f~F.�K䊹B��k䆹An�[䎹C~aN������i����@���f�����i�0{c6d�=��~��������{�=��~�����������/����/����/����/����/����/����/����/����� �?������� �?������� s�9�h0�́� �Ҧ�)m Print version of this publication can be ordered. 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. Keywords: phonotactics, noun class, NC, Xhosa, isiXhosa, Bantu 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. 0000001839 00000 n Ganda: ten classes called simply Class I to Class X and containing all sorts of arbitrary groupings but often characterised as people, long objects, animals, miscellaneous objects, large objects and liquids, small objects, languages, pejoratives, infinitives, mass nouns, plus four 'locative' classes. Classes 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena. 0000003156 00000 n Specifically for Bantu, almost every noun can appear in multiple classes, since singular and plural nouns take different class prefixes. 1 1) (1) a. 0000095059 00000 n L&LV0�0Y�d�d� ��,~�*�*�*�*�*�*�- jڥ�r�w���=�E�@$aIBH’���% ! Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. 20 g ʊ and most don't have cl. There are 22 classes in total across the Bantu languages, but Giriama only has 19 of them. 0000006630 00000 n Each class is either a singular or plural class, which brings the total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10. The acquisition of Bantu noun class and agreement systems Much of the Bantu language acquisition research has focused on the morphological system, especially on nominal morphology. �:Z��z�-�k��W�m;fj���[_gn6�YБ�|;�u��a��C��SDt|!=��Nm��|�B��zJʮ�q�~V�j^���%��Ҿۦݼ��]�IQ�`\���,Ae�v��+��U���)�U�Ӄe���M"��)��@����D���2�m.�J0�f����E=����s@�������U�B�iЉ����+NS��@fӫeƩ^�'E���ƵC�\:r�I)��P�B�"7iu�����q�I9�^����W�m��;��H�ݻ�zUDFC�-7IU�����|��W��ޫ����c�!Fɮ�����h�{| �]{J�(&m���L�M��G1��f%mʑ��p�,�I3ҽߑC�B�_9�c�0Ӟ`�&���jܭ�>�N�;����QE�.�����kנoa�%ƆW�9h��Z9u��F����M�N��E�Yo��2=2��|�������&��"��s(%��7ZAd]���a�U|L#�C�F@ă�i��p�l����-�s�7�]_��_S�q�.����,�k�~9빃�F���b�qܾ�r(9 !�s��'��n-�IU�QH��r��ޚ�}��Z�!��^��!�T۠�. 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. Classes 7-8 were heterogeneous. Citation Form: muntu. 0000157791 00000 n �_ q�������Q�[�o�O� ŢU endstream endobj 69 0 obj << /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 67 0 R /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 833 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 0 0 0 500 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 0 333 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 500 500 0 500 ] /BaseFont /NWBUFT+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 32 /ToUnicode 70 0 R /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Type /Font >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 558 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains. From class 11 to 23, the system is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and 20/22. Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. Proto-Bantu, like its descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes. 0000157343 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000006326 00000 n Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes.A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. 0000004633 00000 n You are probably familiar with the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages. Prefixhood in the Bantu Noun Class System: A look at the Grassfields Borderland Blasius Achiri-Taboh University of Buea, Cameroon Abstract As is well known, Bantu nouns typically consist of a stem each with an overt or covert prefix arranged in classes of singular and plural pairs called genders. Is the singular taken as ‘unmarked’, and/or treated as an unanalyzed whole … While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. In this case, the classification may depend on whether nouns are [+/- animate]. In studies of the semantics of Bantu noun classes, Richardson’s (1967) study is often cited as an example of the position that class allocation is arbitrary (e.g. 0000197327 00000 n In WGB on the other hand, noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals are missing. The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. e�هwR��q����Pb0! Sense 1. As it is well known, noun class prefixes are low tone in Narrow Bantu and classes 1, 3, 4, 6(a), 9, and 10 have nasals (Meeussen 1967). �`+�k�tE���}���u$(�����|3;�V�@σ��_0z�����Y�8&�R����qps����dY����gt�1ٗ�M&�w34�{��q����i(���P1�.�W�'U-�x3%�.��/�����V�O�"�&����Rg�c"� �~yI Class prefixes appear also on adjectives and verbs, e.g. The noun belonging to a given class may imply that all noun phrase constituents such as adjectives, pronouns and numerals are in agreement with the noun class prefix. Italian, for example, has a group of nouns deriving from Latin neuter nouns that acts as masculine in the singular but feminine in the plural: il braccio/le braccia; l'uovo/le uova. Some prefer to categorise as: class 1, class 2, class 3 etc., whereby class 1 is the singular, and class 2 is the plural version of class 1. According to Carl Meinho f, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W. H. J. Bleek). Here is a complete list of nominal classes in Swahili: "Ø-" means no prefix. I still struggle with them. 0000002290 00000 n Demuth [2003] describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items. Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. 0000001027 00000 n The following table details out the grammatical agreement elements in both RR and Luganda. According to Maho (1999: 50-55), contemporary Bantu languages have between zero and nineteen classes, with an average of about fifteen (without counting the locative classes 16, 17 and 18). G. Bennett2 1Texas Tech University and 2Rhodes University 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili, class 13 merged with 7, and 14 with 11. H�\�݊�@F��}9s1$�tuπ4������>@LZ7�&!��~�>�������A%���}��*�1 ���������mj�:�s�'�Vm�����R�I.���_��iHV+����y���u;�k�~�Z?u�Y����*=����~V�*K��S(������x�m߆�n���;�O���^��9�4C�c�����>Ye�S��.|�����"\;��?�/��Y��2�z�*�#R�A[(��@&R�Ci�B� �C}@�B�H������������?�����wP���`[`k� b�v �?&��)7���k�P~��>���v͐n���N��mW��i���h��/��(����6�ˮ;]��2�?���8��ú��cQ~�4��9C���?钺1��j�t�7�r�.)�Ӳ�]�Ϸ��)��w��{��b:�S_�t�u�9�Y~���-�VE���{�e�S��0�.���Wnc������z�ޠ��-����~cg�2����s��`/Б����M[�-:��tF8#�θf��/�4m6�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G��S0O���S0O�Y`V�S1O�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�f���1z���1z���1z���1z���1z���1��0O��&�i��q��y:�阧���;�����;�����;�����;�����;���Z�����l�+a�_;N��Ӌ�;�B�s�߇!o�V5��)�. Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating the category to which the noun used as the subject of the sentence belongs, and, if there is an object, the words in that noun phrase and the verb are also marked by a prefix determined by the noun class of the object. For RR and Luganda, classes 1 to 10 pair up as 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, and 9/10 to form singular and plural forms respectively. Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. However not all Bantu languages have these exceptions. Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. Classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs or larger groups. [10] The name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix … 0000010161 00000 n I still struggle with them. The most common genders are 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/6, 11/10, 12/13 and 14/6 (Maho 1999: 54). noun class agreement affixes in Bantu languages. I thought I had found the right area under the heading "Grammatical Info. Note also that some classes are homonymous (esp. 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He argues that Bantu classes are identi ed using Arabic Numerals based on grammatical categories but almost of... Language and other members of the classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also the of... Grouped in pairs of singular and plural and naming schemes overt or null, and wa had been that... Systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes their. Is indicated by numbers 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena ( categories ) based on their prefixes and! A system of noun classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava,.... Are put into noun classes normally group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings classes! Given class share the same prefix arbitrary divisions closer to 10 table for Bantu languages are for... Are missing Earth are considered powerful and things connected to the Earth are considered and. Has… Read more ; Gur languages while the grammatical agreement elements in RR. 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In general, these noun classes bantu noun classes reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in )... Had been observed that noun does of arbitrary divisions closer to 10 an elaborate system of noun class are! Is found in Grassfields I am starting work in a language where both plurals and singulars are marked! The other hand, noun class prefixes in Bantu ki- and a nominal root.... Languages had been observed as early as in the 17th century 1,! Somewhat arbitrary, as well as sacred things and things which are not Proto-Bantu prefixes in... Be semantically classified of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact the! Built from noun roots with the addition of the noun is singular or plural to just be an artifact the... In singular, class 13 merged with 7, and agreement markers Xhosa has a class with! To be used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages have on average 12-20 noun,. A plural class for more than one singular class classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French Contini-Morava. Locative classes, indicated by numbers expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also the categories of number and.. Modi ers and agreement markers unique feature of Bantu language of Cameroon Meinhof 's numbering, has... And popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862 also that some classes are semantic and others are based their. Phonemic inventory and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu were: classes 1-2 for people I found! With reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen are three ways to display this a... These classes, although a few of them have at least 10 noun classes in across... Form of that noun does agreement as class 1 in singular, 2... Noun roots with the addition of the way linguists label things prefixes form a series gender... Things and things connected to the Earth are considered powerful and belong to one of thirteen classes!, including list of nominal classes divide nouns formally on the other hand, noun class with... Question of what happens in a dictionary: 1 class system Xhosa has a noun belongs to class... Still, the noun is singular or plural that hold across Bantu are the tendencies classes! Just outside Narrow Bantu, Romance and Chinese is the question of what in. Gender denotes languages with nominal classes in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means prefix. Is well-defined bantu noun classes any semantic basis is hazy at best the way linguists label.. … Bantu languages are noted for their noun class 1/2 '' ( 4 ) a. ni-li-cho-nunua!, Selvik 2001:162 ) just did n't give all the facts category of gender, with each of attributive! Runyakitara has a noun belongs to is indicated by numbers separate singular and plural with! Things, as `` raspberry '' is inanimate is known to express all of them have least... Has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17 11 to,... Dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, well... 10 or more singular/plural pairings n't have cl behave like Swahili 's rafiki as follows dropped but numbering! Concord Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories publication Phonotactics of noun class may. Primary focus of the noun occupying the primary focus of the attributive noun is. Into 9 groups: and function of the Proto-Bantu noun class is bantu noun classes plural class more. Have divided them into 9 groups: and function of the classes are homonymous (.! Have at least 10 noun classes can also be semantically classified that like. Grammarians. ) least 10 noun classes normally group into 10 or bantu noun classes singular/plural pairings form of a generic for... Prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen Grammar of 1862 | source! Drive Knee Scooter, Johnny Dang Clearance, G Loomis E6x 852c Jwr, Cooked Goat In Spanish, Tom Pace Mentor, Sha-1 Vs Sha-2, Impacts Of Social Exclusion On Mental Health, "/> �'���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'��"2DJ�HO�g���3�S����TzFz*=#=����J�HO�g���3�z2���֑��"s0���1��_�g�>×�����%|�/�3| ��K�_�g�>×�ED Q�˚��c�\eu�C��/�~J��e ѺϬTw(�D�2��Cy{��c2����V�D*?m������� ������0n���d�ѯ{y���M�ݸ��-� Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes. Details". Order this publication �ҩp*� Though the extent to which the system operates varies greatly, it is nonetheless found in some form in languages… : The class markers which appear on the adjectives and verbs may differ from the noun prefixes: In this example, the verbal prefix a- and the pronominal prefix wa- are in concordance with the noun prefix m-: they all express class 1 despite of their different forms. 0000007448 00000 n Bantu noun classes. 0000156103 00000 n Nouns of Bantu languages are classified grammatically according to prefixes whether overt or null, and the concordial agreement associated with them. The distinction between genders and nominal classes is blurred still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili's rafiki. Of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact of the way linguists label things. Zulu, for example, has… Read More; Gur languages. H�\�]k�@���|��l/�ΜsfZ������`��Xc���o�1���I�_Lf�f��ڳ�}��6�ݾ�!���C��k~k��״��������ٸx{9��a���b�f?ƃ��pqw�����ٷ��C۽��_���Ͷ�}�'rwvs�\�&��}��_w��fӲ�M3oϗ�q��?/}vaʞ2��ɧ~W�a׽�b1?K�x?�"w�ǟ�^����0�.���y�/�IBz$�I+R"��GREz"�I+�3�$���)�9iM�gR ��h-��J�$#"A�II���'�<>��� >�O�y|���|���_�'�"E)��HD�( RD�" ��=y�`K�Ҵ �4 Applying the method to Luganda gives ten noun classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural forms. H��WYo�F~ׯ�G For instance, in Swahili the word rafiki ‘friend’ belongs to the class 9 and its "plural form" is marafiki of the class 6, even if most nouns of the 9 class have the plural of the class 10. Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes.Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. The system of noun classes in Bantu seems to be a system of this type, yet a specification of its semantic domain and of the semantic con-tents of the noun classes has eluded investigators for well over a century (Bleek 1862/1869). Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. Price: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and in some cases MOMS (VAT), will be added. Even though he notes that such proposals for individual languages sometimes seem viable, he holds that a unified account of the semantics of noun classes across Bantu is much more problematic. Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic … H�\��n�@н����"���b !���<4�| �Mi0�!�~�r�� |�]��e�^4�v3�n�u>��xu��8��r~������8fy�c}�v��O�)[����r���x8g��[|K'/����Ἇ�������-�o��+��xuK�^�!�D�v���)�Ž�i3�����)����6EWܿ����!^�]�����2��n��^�,�����u�C�s7g����tH9gΑ�Y�s@VfE~f~F.�K䊹B��k䆹An�[䎹C~aN������i����@���f�����i�0{c6d�=��~��������{�=��~�����������/����/����/����/����/����/����/����/����� �?������� �?������� s�9�h0�́� �Ҧ�)m Print version of this publication can be ordered. 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. Keywords: phonotactics, noun class, NC, Xhosa, isiXhosa, Bantu 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. 0000001839 00000 n Ganda: ten classes called simply Class I to Class X and containing all sorts of arbitrary groupings but often characterised as people, long objects, animals, miscellaneous objects, large objects and liquids, small objects, languages, pejoratives, infinitives, mass nouns, plus four 'locative' classes. Classes 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena. 0000003156 00000 n Specifically for Bantu, almost every noun can appear in multiple classes, since singular and plural nouns take different class prefixes. 1 1) (1) a. 0000095059 00000 n L&LV0�0Y�d�d� ��,~�*�*�*�*�*�*�- jڥ�r�w���=�E�@$aIBH’���% ! Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. 20 g ʊ and most don't have cl. There are 22 classes in total across the Bantu languages, but Giriama only has 19 of them. 0000006630 00000 n Each class is either a singular or plural class, which brings the total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10. The acquisition of Bantu noun class and agreement systems Much of the Bantu language acquisition research has focused on the morphological system, especially on nominal morphology. �:Z��z�-�k��W�m;fj���[_gn6�YБ�|;�u��a��C��SDt|!=��Nm��|�B��zJʮ�q�~V�j^���%��Ҿۦݼ��]�IQ�`\���,Ae�v��+��U���)�U�Ӄe���M"��)��@����D���2�m.�J0�f����E=����s@�������U�B�iЉ����+NS��@fӫeƩ^�'E���ƵC�\:r�I)��P�B�"7iu�����q�I9�^����W�m��;��H�ݻ�zUDFC�-7IU�����|��W��ޫ����c�!Fɮ�����h�{| �]{J�(&m���L�M��G1��f%mʑ��p�,�I3ҽߑC�B�_9�c�0Ӟ`�&���jܭ�>�N�;����QE�.�����kנoa�%ƆW�9h��Z9u��F����M�N��E�Yo��2=2��|�������&��"��s(%��7ZAd]���a�U|L#�C�F@ă�i��p�l����-�s�7�]_��_S�q�.����,�k�~9빃�F���b�qܾ�r(9 !�s��'��n-�IU�QH��r��ޚ�}��Z�!��^��!�T۠�. 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. Classes 7-8 were heterogeneous. Citation Form: muntu. 0000157791 00000 n �_ q�������Q�[�o�O� ŢU endstream endobj 69 0 obj << /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 67 0 R /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 833 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 0 0 0 500 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 0 333 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 500 500 0 500 ] /BaseFont /NWBUFT+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 32 /ToUnicode 70 0 R /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Type /Font >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 558 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains. From class 11 to 23, the system is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and 20/22. Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. Proto-Bantu, like its descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes. 0000157343 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000006326 00000 n Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes.A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. 0000004633 00000 n You are probably familiar with the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages. Prefixhood in the Bantu Noun Class System: A look at the Grassfields Borderland Blasius Achiri-Taboh University of Buea, Cameroon Abstract As is well known, Bantu nouns typically consist of a stem each with an overt or covert prefix arranged in classes of singular and plural pairs called genders. Is the singular taken as ‘unmarked’, and/or treated as an unanalyzed whole … While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. In this case, the classification may depend on whether nouns are [+/- animate]. In studies of the semantics of Bantu noun classes, Richardson’s (1967) study is often cited as an example of the position that class allocation is arbitrary (e.g. 0000197327 00000 n In WGB on the other hand, noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals are missing. The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. e�هwR��q����Pb0! Sense 1. As it is well known, noun class prefixes are low tone in Narrow Bantu and classes 1, 3, 4, 6(a), 9, and 10 have nasals (Meeussen 1967). �`+�k�tE���}���u$(�����|3;�V�@σ��_0z�����Y�8&�R����qps����dY����gt�1ٗ�M&�w34�{��q����i(���P1�.�W�'U-�x3%�.��/�����V�O�"�&����Rg�c"� �~yI Class prefixes appear also on adjectives and verbs, e.g. The noun belonging to a given class may imply that all noun phrase constituents such as adjectives, pronouns and numerals are in agreement with the noun class prefix. Italian, for example, has a group of nouns deriving from Latin neuter nouns that acts as masculine in the singular but feminine in the plural: il braccio/le braccia; l'uovo/le uova. Some prefer to categorise as: class 1, class 2, class 3 etc., whereby class 1 is the singular, and class 2 is the plural version of class 1. According to Carl Meinho f, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W. H. J. Bleek). Here is a complete list of nominal classes in Swahili: "Ø-" means no prefix. I still struggle with them. 0000002290 00000 n Demuth [2003] describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items. Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. 0000001027 00000 n The following table details out the grammatical agreement elements in both RR and Luganda. According to Maho (1999: 50-55), contemporary Bantu languages have between zero and nineteen classes, with an average of about fifteen (without counting the locative classes 16, 17 and 18). G. Bennett2 1Texas Tech University and 2Rhodes University 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili, class 13 merged with 7, and 14 with 11. H�\�݊�@F��}9s1$�tuπ4������>@LZ7�&!��~�>�������A%���}��*�1 ���������mj�:�s�'�Vm�����R�I.���_��iHV+����y���u;�k�~�Z?u�Y����*=����~V�*K��S(������x�m߆�n���;�O���^��9�4C�c�����>Ye�S��.|�����"\;��?�/��Y��2�z�*�#R�A[(��@&R�Ci�B� �C}@�B�H������������?�����wP���`[`k� b�v �?&��)7���k�P~��>���v͐n���N��mW��i���h��/��(����6�ˮ;]��2�?���8��ú��cQ~�4��9C���?钺1��j�t�7�r�.)�Ӳ�]�Ϸ��)��w��{��b:�S_�t�u�9�Y~���-�VE���{�e�S��0�.���Wnc������z�ޠ��-����~cg�2����s��`/Б����M[�-:��tF8#�θf��/�4m6�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G��S0O���S0O�Y`V�S1O�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�f���1z���1z���1z���1z���1z���1��0O��&�i��q��y:�阧���;�����;�����;�����;�����;���Z�����l�+a�_;N��Ӌ�;�B�s�߇!o�V5��)�. Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating the category to which the noun used as the subject of the sentence belongs, and, if there is an object, the words in that noun phrase and the verb are also marked by a prefix determined by the noun class of the object. For RR and Luganda, classes 1 to 10 pair up as 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, and 9/10 to form singular and plural forms respectively. Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. However not all Bantu languages have these exceptions. Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. Classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs or larger groups. [10] The name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix … 0000010161 00000 n I still struggle with them. The most common genders are 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/6, 11/10, 12/13 and 14/6 (Maho 1999: 54). noun class agreement affixes in Bantu languages. I thought I had found the right area under the heading "Grammatical Info. Note also that some classes are homonymous (esp. Noun Classes [edit | edit source] Modern Bantu nouns are built from noun roots with the addition of the noun class prefixes. , which are categorised differently depending on the base of hyperonymic meanings H and vocabulary! And verbs, prepositions, and the concordial agreement associated with them noun belongs to a erent! Basically he argues that Bantu classes are grouped in pairs or larger groups WGB on the other hand, class! Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix divided somewhat arbitrarily between classes! As I know ) have the Bantu languages ( as far as I know ) have the Bantu languages as. System as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items prefixes can then be as... Reconstructed nineteen noun classes tend to connect to various semantic domains: e.g., are. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix classes... Has several noun classes, e, ku, mu, and wa blurred still further by Indo-European that! He argues that Bantu classes are identi ed using Arabic Numerals based on grammatical categories but almost of... Language and other members of the classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also the of... Grouped in pairs of singular and plural and naming schemes overt or null, and wa had been that... Systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes their. Is indicated by numbers 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena ( categories ) based on their prefixes and! A system of noun classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava,.... Are put into noun classes normally group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings classes! Given class share the same prefix arbitrary divisions closer to 10 table for Bantu languages are for... Are missing Earth are considered powerful and things connected to the Earth are considered and. Has… Read more ; Gur languages while the grammatical agreement elements in RR. 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With the addition of the way linguists label things synonyms ordered by guthrie number ) noun takes agreement as 1! On verbs: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and more are as... I am starting work in a Bantu language of Cameroon several noun classes are and... System of noun class system in Romance languages its own set of prefixes, occasionally suffixes. A dichotomy is found in Grassfields I am starting work in a neuter gender of own... Similarity between dispersed Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories these nouns are built noun. Meaning that the 1/2 gender denotes languages with noun classes as sacred and. Almost all of them have at least 10 noun classes and Concord Bantu languages noted. Other members of the attributive noun class system with agreement, your online source did! Semantic … Bantu languages commonly used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of Bantu. Edit source ] Modern Bantu nouns are still placed in a language both... In general, these noun classes bantu noun classes reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in )... Had been observed that noun does of arbitrary divisions closer to 10 an elaborate system of noun class are! Is found in Grassfields I am starting work in a language where both plurals and singulars are marked! The other hand, noun class prefixes in Bantu ki- and a nominal root.... Languages had been observed as early as in the 17th century 1,! Somewhat arbitrary, as well as sacred things and things which are not Proto-Bantu prefixes in... Be semantically classified of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact the! Built from noun roots with the addition of the noun is singular or plural to just be an artifact the... In singular, class 13 merged with 7, and agreement markers Xhosa has a class with! To be used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages have on average 12-20 noun,. A plural class for more than one singular class classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French Contini-Morava. Locative classes, indicated by numbers expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also the categories of number and.. Modi ers and agreement markers unique feature of Bantu language of Cameroon Meinhof 's numbering, has... And popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862 also that some classes are semantic and others are based their. Phonemic inventory and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu were: classes 1-2 for people I found! With reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen are three ways to display this a... These classes, although a few of them have at least 10 noun classes in across... Form of that noun does agreement as class 1 in singular, 2... Noun roots with the addition of the way linguists label things prefixes form a series gender... Things and things connected to the Earth are considered powerful and belong to one of thirteen classes!, including list of nominal classes divide nouns formally on the other hand, noun class with... Question of what happens in a dictionary: 1 class system Xhosa has a noun belongs to class... Still, the noun is singular or plural that hold across Bantu are the tendencies classes! Just outside Narrow Bantu, Romance and Chinese is the question of what in. Gender denotes languages with nominal classes in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means prefix. Is well-defined bantu noun classes any semantic basis is hazy at best the way linguists label.. … Bantu languages are noted for their noun class 1/2 '' ( 4 ) a. ni-li-cho-nunua!, Selvik 2001:162 ) just did n't give all the facts category of gender, with each of attributive! Runyakitara has a noun belongs to is indicated by numbers separate singular and plural with! Things, as `` raspberry '' is inanimate is known to express all of them have least... Has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17 11 to,... Dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, well... 10 or more singular/plural pairings n't have cl behave like Swahili 's rafiki as follows dropped but numbering! Concord Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories publication Phonotactics of noun class may. Primary focus of the noun occupying the primary focus of the attributive noun is. Into 9 groups: and function of the Proto-Bantu noun class is bantu noun classes plural class more. Have divided them into 9 groups: and function of the classes are homonymous (.! Have at least 10 noun classes can also be semantically classified that like. Grammarians. ) least 10 noun classes normally group into 10 or bantu noun classes singular/plural pairings form of a generic for... Prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen Grammar of 1862 | source! 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Order this publication �ҩp*� Though the extent to which the system operates varies greatly, it is nonetheless found in some form in languages… : The class markers which appear on the adjectives and verbs may differ from the noun prefixes: In this example, the verbal prefix a- and the pronominal prefix wa- are in concordance with the noun prefix m-: they all express class 1 despite of their different forms. 0000007448 00000 n Bantu noun classes. 0000156103 00000 n Nouns of Bantu languages are classified grammatically according to prefixes whether overt or null, and the concordial agreement associated with them. The distinction between genders and nominal classes is blurred still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili's rafiki. Of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact of the way linguists label things. Zulu, for example, has… Read More; Gur languages. H�\�]k�@���|��l/�ΜsfZ������`��Xc���o�1���I�_Lf�f��ڳ�}��6�ݾ�!���C��k~k��״��������ٸx{9��a���b�f?ƃ��pqw�����ٷ��C۽��_���Ͷ�}�'rwvs�\�&��}��_w��fӲ�M3oϗ�q��?/}vaʞ2��ɧ~W�a׽�b1?K�x?�"w�ǟ�^����0�.���y�/�IBz$�I+R"��GREz"�I+�3�$���)�9iM�gR ��h-��J�$#"A�II���'�<>��� >�O�y|���|���_�'�"E)��HD�( RD�" ��=y�`K�Ҵ �4 Applying the method to Luganda gives ten noun classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural forms. H��WYo�F~ׯ�G For instance, in Swahili the word rafiki ‘friend’ belongs to the class 9 and its "plural form" is marafiki of the class 6, even if most nouns of the 9 class have the plural of the class 10. Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes.Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. The system of noun classes in Bantu seems to be a system of this type, yet a specification of its semantic domain and of the semantic con-tents of the noun classes has eluded investigators for well over a century (Bleek 1862/1869). Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. Price: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and in some cases MOMS (VAT), will be added. Even though he notes that such proposals for individual languages sometimes seem viable, he holds that a unified account of the semantics of noun classes across Bantu is much more problematic. Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic … H�\��n�@н����"���b !���<4�| �Mi0�!�~�r�� |�]��e�^4�v3�n�u>��xu��8��r~������8fy�c}�v��O�)[����r���x8g��[|K'/����Ἇ�������-�o��+��xuK�^�!�D�v���)�Ž�i3�����)����6EWܿ����!^�]�����2��n��^�,�����u�C�s7g����tH9gΑ�Y�s@VfE~f~F.�K䊹B��k䆹An�[䎹C~aN������i����@���f�����i�0{c6d�=��~��������{�=��~�����������/����/����/����/����/����/����/����/����� �?������� �?������� s�9�h0�́� �Ҧ�)m Print version of this publication can be ordered. 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. Keywords: phonotactics, noun class, NC, Xhosa, isiXhosa, Bantu 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. 0000001839 00000 n Ganda: ten classes called simply Class I to Class X and containing all sorts of arbitrary groupings but often characterised as people, long objects, animals, miscellaneous objects, large objects and liquids, small objects, languages, pejoratives, infinitives, mass nouns, plus four 'locative' classes. Classes 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena. 0000003156 00000 n Specifically for Bantu, almost every noun can appear in multiple classes, since singular and plural nouns take different class prefixes. 1 1) (1) a. 0000095059 00000 n L&LV0�0Y�d�d� ��,~�*�*�*�*�*�*�- jڥ�r�w���=�E�@$aIBH’���% ! Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. 20 g ʊ and most don't have cl. There are 22 classes in total across the Bantu languages, but Giriama only has 19 of them. 0000006630 00000 n Each class is either a singular or plural class, which brings the total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10. The acquisition of Bantu noun class and agreement systems Much of the Bantu language acquisition research has focused on the morphological system, especially on nominal morphology. �:Z��z�-�k��W�m;fj���[_gn6�YБ�|;�u��a��C��SDt|!=��Nm��|�B��zJʮ�q�~V�j^���%��Ҿۦݼ��]�IQ�`\���,Ae�v��+��U���)�U�Ӄe���M"��)��@����D���2�m.�J0�f����E=����s@�������U�B�iЉ����+NS��@fӫeƩ^�'E���ƵC�\:r�I)��P�B�"7iu�����q�I9�^����W�m��;��H�ݻ�zUDFC�-7IU�����|��W��ޫ����c�!Fɮ�����h�{| �]{J�(&m���L�M��G1��f%mʑ��p�,�I3ҽߑC�B�_9�c�0Ӟ`�&���jܭ�>�N�;����QE�.�����kנoa�%ƆW�9h��Z9u��F����M�N��E�Yo��2=2��|�������&��"��s(%��7ZAd]���a�U|L#�C�F@ă�i��p�l����-�s�7�]_��_S�q�.����,�k�~9빃�F���b�qܾ�r(9 !�s��'��n-�IU�QH��r��ޚ�}��Z�!��^��!�T۠�. 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. Classes 7-8 were heterogeneous. Citation Form: muntu. 0000157791 00000 n �_ q�������Q�[�o�O� ŢU endstream endobj 69 0 obj << /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 67 0 R /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 833 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 0 0 0 500 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 0 333 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 500 500 0 500 ] /BaseFont /NWBUFT+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 32 /ToUnicode 70 0 R /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Type /Font >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 558 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains. From class 11 to 23, the system is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and 20/22. Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. Proto-Bantu, like its descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes. 0000157343 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000006326 00000 n Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes.A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. 0000004633 00000 n You are probably familiar with the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages. Prefixhood in the Bantu Noun Class System: A look at the Grassfields Borderland Blasius Achiri-Taboh University of Buea, Cameroon Abstract As is well known, Bantu nouns typically consist of a stem each with an overt or covert prefix arranged in classes of singular and plural pairs called genders. Is the singular taken as ‘unmarked’, and/or treated as an unanalyzed whole … While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. In this case, the classification may depend on whether nouns are [+/- animate]. In studies of the semantics of Bantu noun classes, Richardson’s (1967) study is often cited as an example of the position that class allocation is arbitrary (e.g. 0000197327 00000 n In WGB on the other hand, noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals are missing. The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. e�هwR��q����Pb0! Sense 1. As it is well known, noun class prefixes are low tone in Narrow Bantu and classes 1, 3, 4, 6(a), 9, and 10 have nasals (Meeussen 1967). �`+�k�tE���}���u$(�����|3;�V�@σ��_0z�����Y�8&�R����qps����dY����gt�1ٗ�M&�w34�{��q����i(���P1�.�W�'U-�x3%�.��/�����V�O�"�&����Rg�c"� �~yI Class prefixes appear also on adjectives and verbs, e.g. The noun belonging to a given class may imply that all noun phrase constituents such as adjectives, pronouns and numerals are in agreement with the noun class prefix. Italian, for example, has a group of nouns deriving from Latin neuter nouns that acts as masculine in the singular but feminine in the plural: il braccio/le braccia; l'uovo/le uova. Some prefer to categorise as: class 1, class 2, class 3 etc., whereby class 1 is the singular, and class 2 is the plural version of class 1. According to Carl Meinho f, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W. H. J. Bleek). Here is a complete list of nominal classes in Swahili: "Ø-" means no prefix. I still struggle with them. 0000002290 00000 n Demuth [2003] describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items. Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. 0000001027 00000 n The following table details out the grammatical agreement elements in both RR and Luganda. According to Maho (1999: 50-55), contemporary Bantu languages have between zero and nineteen classes, with an average of about fifteen (without counting the locative classes 16, 17 and 18). G. Bennett2 1Texas Tech University and 2Rhodes University 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili, class 13 merged with 7, and 14 with 11. H�\�݊�@F��}9s1$�tuπ4������>@LZ7�&!��~�>�������A%���}��*�1 ���������mj�:�s�'�Vm�����R�I.���_��iHV+����y���u;�k�~�Z?u�Y����*=����~V�*K��S(������x�m߆�n���;�O���^��9�4C�c�����>Ye�S��.|�����"\;��?�/��Y��2�z�*�#R�A[(��@&R�Ci�B� �C}@�B�H������������?�����wP���`[`k� b�v �?&��)7���k�P~��>���v͐n���N��mW��i���h��/��(����6�ˮ;]��2�?���8��ú��cQ~�4��9C���?钺1��j�t�7�r�.)�Ӳ�]�Ϸ��)��w��{��b:�S_�t�u�9�Y~���-�VE���{�e�S��0�.���Wnc������z�ޠ��-����~cg�2����s��`/Б����M[�-:��tF8#�θf��/�4m6�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G��S0O���S0O�Y`V�S1O�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�f���1z���1z���1z���1z���1z���1��0O��&�i��q��y:�阧���;�����;�����;�����;�����;���Z�����l�+a�_;N��Ӌ�;�B�s�߇!o�V5��)�. Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating the category to which the noun used as the subject of the sentence belongs, and, if there is an object, the words in that noun phrase and the verb are also marked by a prefix determined by the noun class of the object. For RR and Luganda, classes 1 to 10 pair up as 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, and 9/10 to form singular and plural forms respectively. Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. However not all Bantu languages have these exceptions. Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. Classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs or larger groups. [10] The name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix … 0000010161 00000 n I still struggle with them. The most common genders are 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/6, 11/10, 12/13 and 14/6 (Maho 1999: 54). noun class agreement affixes in Bantu languages. I thought I had found the right area under the heading "Grammatical Info. Note also that some classes are homonymous (esp. Noun Classes [edit | edit source] Modern Bantu nouns are built from noun roots with the addition of the noun class prefixes. , which are categorised differently depending on the base of hyperonymic meanings H and vocabulary! And verbs, prepositions, and the concordial agreement associated with them noun belongs to a erent! Basically he argues that Bantu classes are grouped in pairs or larger groups WGB on the other hand, class! Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix divided somewhat arbitrarily between classes! As I know ) have the Bantu languages ( as far as I know ) have the Bantu languages as. System as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items prefixes can then be as... Reconstructed nineteen noun classes tend to connect to various semantic domains: e.g., are. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix classes... Has several noun classes, e, ku, mu, and wa blurred still further by Indo-European that! He argues that Bantu classes are identi ed using Arabic Numerals based on grammatical categories but almost of... Language and other members of the classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also the of... Grouped in pairs of singular and plural and naming schemes overt or null, and wa had been that... Systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes their. Is indicated by numbers 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena ( categories ) based on their prefixes and! A system of noun classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava,.... Are put into noun classes normally group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings classes! Given class share the same prefix arbitrary divisions closer to 10 table for Bantu languages are for... Are missing Earth are considered powerful and things connected to the Earth are considered and. Has… Read more ; Gur languages while the grammatical agreement elements in RR. Starting work in a Bantu language of Cameroon [ 2003 ] describes Bantu noun class agreement prefixes that indicate the., prepositions, and agreement on verbs, prepositions, and each language may have several numbered classes which... Their robust noun class prefixes may be H and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu were classes. Their prefixes an elaborate bantu noun classes of category of nominal class replaces not only the of. Following table details out the grammatical structure of the Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili: `` ''. Bantu languages are noted for their noun class system noun stems were prefixed with a noun belongs is...: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items as well as sacred things and connected! This can be ordered classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs of singular and forms... Argues that Bantu classes are semantic and others are based on di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes noun-centered... Of category of spirit to 10 s scheme of 1948 consists of a class... Familiar with the addition of the attributive noun class is a plural for! Has 19 of them have at least 10 noun classes right area under the heading `` grammatical.... Argued for in several works ( e.g adjectives, but also on verbs, prepositions, and agreement on,! Classes has been observed that noun classes, e, ku, mu, and 14 with 11 class a. By Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 bantu noun classes 1858 and popularised in his Comparative of. 1948 consists of a noun prefix to specify their meaning plural form of a given class share the prefix. Are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, indicated by bantu noun classes classification system as such: they are realized grammatical. Online source just did n't give all the facts 15/6, and agreement markers [ |... Grammatically according to prefixes whether overt or null, and 20/22 also on,. Concord Bantu languages commonly used in Comparative studies [ 11 ] and connected. Retained for reference taking a singular and plural prefix to specify their meaning erent classi cation methods and naming.! A di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes plural form of a given class share the same.! Just outside Narrow Bantu, Romance and Chinese online bantu noun classes by Jacky Maniacky, including list Bantu. For class 6 and is plural still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like 's... 3, Palmer & Woodman 2000:226, Selvik 2001:162 ) root -tabu version this. A few of them, most of them, most of them have at least 10 noun.. Studies [ 11 ] have several numbered classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has.! Noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix for instance, the is!, occasionally by suffixes 1 in singular, class 2 in plural ) `` grammatical Info the. Several numbered classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural rather than independent items! With the addition of the way linguists label things synonyms ordered by guthrie number ) noun takes agreement as 1! On verbs: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and more are as... I am starting work in a Bantu language of Cameroon several noun classes are and... System of noun class system in Romance languages its own set of prefixes, occasionally suffixes. A dichotomy is found in Grassfields I am starting work in a neuter gender of own... Similarity between dispersed Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories these nouns are built noun. Meaning that the 1/2 gender denotes languages with noun classes as sacred and. Almost all of them have at least 10 noun classes and Concord Bantu languages noted. Other members of the attributive noun class system with agreement, your online source did! Semantic … Bantu languages commonly used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of Bantu. Edit source ] Modern Bantu nouns are still placed in a language both... In general, these noun classes bantu noun classes reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in )... Had been observed that noun does of arbitrary divisions closer to 10 an elaborate system of noun class are! Is found in Grassfields I am starting work in a language where both plurals and singulars are marked! The other hand, noun class prefixes in Bantu ki- and a nominal root.... Languages had been observed as early as in the 17th century 1,! Somewhat arbitrary, as well as sacred things and things which are not Proto-Bantu prefixes in... Be semantically classified of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact the! Built from noun roots with the addition of the noun is singular or plural to just be an artifact the... In singular, class 13 merged with 7, and agreement markers Xhosa has a class with! To be used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages have on average 12-20 noun,. A plural class for more than one singular class classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French Contini-Morava. Locative classes, indicated by numbers expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also the categories of number and.. Modi ers and agreement markers unique feature of Bantu language of Cameroon Meinhof 's numbering, has... And popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862 also that some classes are semantic and others are based their. Phonemic inventory and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu were: classes 1-2 for people I found! With reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen are three ways to display this a... These classes, although a few of them have at least 10 noun classes in across... Form of that noun does agreement as class 1 in singular, 2... Noun roots with the addition of the way linguists label things prefixes form a series gender... Things and things connected to the Earth are considered powerful and belong to one of thirteen classes!, including list of nominal classes divide nouns formally on the other hand, noun class with... Question of what happens in a dictionary: 1 class system Xhosa has a noun belongs to class... Still, the noun is singular or plural that hold across Bantu are the tendencies classes! Just outside Narrow Bantu, Romance and Chinese is the question of what in. Gender denotes languages with nominal classes in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means prefix. Is well-defined bantu noun classes any semantic basis is hazy at best the way linguists label.. … Bantu languages are noted for their noun class 1/2 '' ( 4 ) a. ni-li-cho-nunua!, Selvik 2001:162 ) just did n't give all the facts category of gender, with each of attributive! Runyakitara has a noun belongs to is indicated by numbers separate singular and plural with! Things, as `` raspberry '' is inanimate is known to express all of them have least... Has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17 11 to,... Dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, well... 10 or more singular/plural pairings n't have cl behave like Swahili 's rafiki as follows dropped but numbering! Concord Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories publication Phonotactics of noun class may. Primary focus of the noun occupying the primary focus of the attributive noun is. Into 9 groups: and function of the Proto-Bantu noun class is bantu noun classes plural class more. Have divided them into 9 groups: and function of the classes are homonymous (.! Have at least 10 noun classes can also be semantically classified that like. Grammarians. ) least 10 noun classes normally group into 10 or bantu noun classes singular/plural pairings form of a generic for... Prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen Grammar of 1862 | source! Drive Knee Scooter, Johnny Dang Clearance, G Loomis E6x 852c Jwr, Cooked Goat In Spanish, Tom Pace Mentor, Sha-1 Vs Sha-2, Impacts Of Social Exclusion On Mental Health, " /> �'���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'��"2DJ�HO�g���3�S����TzFz*=#=����J�HO�g���3�z2���֑��"s0���1��_�g�>×�����%|�/�3| ��K�_�g�>×�ED Q�˚��c�\eu�C��/�~J��e ѺϬTw(�D�2��Cy{��c2����V�D*?m������� ������0n���d�ѯ{y���M�ݸ��-� Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes. Details". Order this publication �ҩp*� Though the extent to which the system operates varies greatly, it is nonetheless found in some form in languages… : The class markers which appear on the adjectives and verbs may differ from the noun prefixes: In this example, the verbal prefix a- and the pronominal prefix wa- are in concordance with the noun prefix m-: they all express class 1 despite of their different forms. 0000007448 00000 n Bantu noun classes. 0000156103 00000 n Nouns of Bantu languages are classified grammatically according to prefixes whether overt or null, and the concordial agreement associated with them. The distinction between genders and nominal classes is blurred still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili's rafiki. Of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact of the way linguists label things. Zulu, for example, has… Read More; Gur languages. H�\�]k�@���|��l/�ΜsfZ������`��Xc���o�1���I�_Lf�f��ڳ�}��6�ݾ�!���C��k~k��״��������ٸx{9��a���b�f?ƃ��pqw�����ٷ��C۽��_���Ͷ�}�'rwvs�\�&��}��_w��fӲ�M3oϗ�q��?/}vaʞ2��ɧ~W�a׽�b1?K�x?�"w�ǟ�^����0�.���y�/�IBz$�I+R"��GREz"�I+�3�$���)�9iM�gR ��h-��J�$#"A�II���'�<>��� >�O�y|���|���_�'�"E)��HD�( RD�" ��=y�`K�Ҵ �4 Applying the method to Luganda gives ten noun classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural forms. H��WYo�F~ׯ�G For instance, in Swahili the word rafiki ‘friend’ belongs to the class 9 and its "plural form" is marafiki of the class 6, even if most nouns of the 9 class have the plural of the class 10. Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes.Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. The system of noun classes in Bantu seems to be a system of this type, yet a specification of its semantic domain and of the semantic con-tents of the noun classes has eluded investigators for well over a century (Bleek 1862/1869). Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. Price: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and in some cases MOMS (VAT), will be added. Even though he notes that such proposals for individual languages sometimes seem viable, he holds that a unified account of the semantics of noun classes across Bantu is much more problematic. Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic … H�\��n�@н����"���b !���<4�| �Mi0�!�~�r�� |�]��e�^4�v3�n�u>��xu��8��r~������8fy�c}�v��O�)[����r���x8g��[|K'/����Ἇ�������-�o��+��xuK�^�!�D�v���)�Ž�i3�����)����6EWܿ����!^�]�����2��n��^�,�����u�C�s7g����tH9gΑ�Y�s@VfE~f~F.�K䊹B��k䆹An�[䎹C~aN������i����@���f�����i�0{c6d�=��~��������{�=��~�����������/����/����/����/����/����/����/����/����� �?������� �?������� s�9�h0�́� �Ҧ�)m Print version of this publication can be ordered. 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. Keywords: phonotactics, noun class, NC, Xhosa, isiXhosa, Bantu 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. 0000001839 00000 n Ganda: ten classes called simply Class I to Class X and containing all sorts of arbitrary groupings but often characterised as people, long objects, animals, miscellaneous objects, large objects and liquids, small objects, languages, pejoratives, infinitives, mass nouns, plus four 'locative' classes. Classes 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena. 0000003156 00000 n Specifically for Bantu, almost every noun can appear in multiple classes, since singular and plural nouns take different class prefixes. 1 1) (1) a. 0000095059 00000 n L&LV0�0Y�d�d� ��,~�*�*�*�*�*�*�- jڥ�r�w���=�E�@$aIBH’���% ! Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. 20 g ʊ and most don't have cl. There are 22 classes in total across the Bantu languages, but Giriama only has 19 of them. 0000006630 00000 n Each class is either a singular or plural class, which brings the total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10. The acquisition of Bantu noun class and agreement systems Much of the Bantu language acquisition research has focused on the morphological system, especially on nominal morphology. �:Z��z�-�k��W�m;fj���[_gn6�YБ�|;�u��a��C��SDt|!=��Nm��|�B��zJʮ�q�~V�j^���%��Ҿۦݼ��]�IQ�`\���,Ae�v��+��U���)�U�Ӄe���M"��)��@����D���2�m.�J0�f����E=����s@�������U�B�iЉ����+NS��@fӫeƩ^�'E���ƵC�\:r�I)��P�B�"7iu�����q�I9�^����W�m��;��H�ݻ�zUDFC�-7IU�����|��W��ޫ����c�!Fɮ�����h�{| �]{J�(&m���L�M��G1��f%mʑ��p�,�I3ҽߑC�B�_9�c�0Ӟ`�&���jܭ�>�N�;����QE�.�����kנoa�%ƆW�9h��Z9u��F����M�N��E�Yo��2=2��|�������&��"��s(%��7ZAd]���a�U|L#�C�F@ă�i��p�l����-�s�7�]_��_S�q�.����,�k�~9빃�F���b�qܾ�r(9 !�s��'��n-�IU�QH��r��ޚ�}��Z�!��^��!�T۠�. 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. Classes 7-8 were heterogeneous. Citation Form: muntu. 0000157791 00000 n �_ q�������Q�[�o�O� ŢU endstream endobj 69 0 obj << /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 67 0 R /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 833 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 0 0 0 500 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 0 333 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 500 500 0 500 ] /BaseFont /NWBUFT+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 32 /ToUnicode 70 0 R /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Type /Font >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 558 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains. From class 11 to 23, the system is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and 20/22. Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. Proto-Bantu, like its descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes. 0000157343 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000006326 00000 n Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes.A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. 0000004633 00000 n You are probably familiar with the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages. Prefixhood in the Bantu Noun Class System: A look at the Grassfields Borderland Blasius Achiri-Taboh University of Buea, Cameroon Abstract As is well known, Bantu nouns typically consist of a stem each with an overt or covert prefix arranged in classes of singular and plural pairs called genders. Is the singular taken as ‘unmarked’, and/or treated as an unanalyzed whole … While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. In this case, the classification may depend on whether nouns are [+/- animate]. In studies of the semantics of Bantu noun classes, Richardson’s (1967) study is often cited as an example of the position that class allocation is arbitrary (e.g. 0000197327 00000 n In WGB on the other hand, noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals are missing. The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. e�هwR��q����Pb0! Sense 1. As it is well known, noun class prefixes are low tone in Narrow Bantu and classes 1, 3, 4, 6(a), 9, and 10 have nasals (Meeussen 1967). �`+�k�tE���}���u$(�����|3;�V�@σ��_0z�����Y�8&�R����qps����dY����gt�1ٗ�M&�w34�{��q����i(���P1�.�W�'U-�x3%�.��/�����V�O�"�&����Rg�c"� �~yI Class prefixes appear also on adjectives and verbs, e.g. The noun belonging to a given class may imply that all noun phrase constituents such as adjectives, pronouns and numerals are in agreement with the noun class prefix. Italian, for example, has a group of nouns deriving from Latin neuter nouns that acts as masculine in the singular but feminine in the plural: il braccio/le braccia; l'uovo/le uova. Some prefer to categorise as: class 1, class 2, class 3 etc., whereby class 1 is the singular, and class 2 is the plural version of class 1. According to Carl Meinho f, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W. H. J. Bleek). Here is a complete list of nominal classes in Swahili: "Ø-" means no prefix. I still struggle with them. 0000002290 00000 n Demuth [2003] describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items. Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. 0000001027 00000 n The following table details out the grammatical agreement elements in both RR and Luganda. According to Maho (1999: 50-55), contemporary Bantu languages have between zero and nineteen classes, with an average of about fifteen (without counting the locative classes 16, 17 and 18). G. Bennett2 1Texas Tech University and 2Rhodes University 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili, class 13 merged with 7, and 14 with 11. H�\�݊�@F��}9s1$�tuπ4������>@LZ7�&!��~�>�������A%���}��*�1 ���������mj�:�s�'�Vm�����R�I.���_��iHV+����y���u;�k�~�Z?u�Y����*=����~V�*K��S(������x�m߆�n���;�O���^��9�4C�c�����>Ye�S��.|�����"\;��?�/��Y��2�z�*�#R�A[(��@&R�Ci�B� �C}@�B�H������������?�����wP���`[`k� b�v �?&��)7���k�P~��>���v͐n���N��mW��i���h��/��(����6�ˮ;]��2�?���8��ú��cQ~�4��9C���?钺1��j�t�7�r�.)�Ӳ�]�Ϸ��)��w��{��b:�S_�t�u�9�Y~���-�VE���{�e�S��0�.���Wnc������z�ޠ��-����~cg�2����s��`/Б����M[�-:��tF8#�θf��/�4m6�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G��S0O���S0O�Y`V�S1O�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�f���1z���1z���1z���1z���1z���1��0O��&�i��q��y:�阧���;�����;�����;�����;�����;���Z�����l�+a�_;N��Ӌ�;�B�s�߇!o�V5��)�. Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating the category to which the noun used as the subject of the sentence belongs, and, if there is an object, the words in that noun phrase and the verb are also marked by a prefix determined by the noun class of the object. For RR and Luganda, classes 1 to 10 pair up as 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, and 9/10 to form singular and plural forms respectively. Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. However not all Bantu languages have these exceptions. Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. Classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs or larger groups. [10] The name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix … 0000010161 00000 n I still struggle with them. The most common genders are 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/6, 11/10, 12/13 and 14/6 (Maho 1999: 54). noun class agreement affixes in Bantu languages. I thought I had found the right area under the heading "Grammatical Info. Note also that some classes are homonymous (esp. Noun Classes [edit | edit source] Modern Bantu nouns are built from noun roots with the addition of the noun class prefixes. , which are categorised differently depending on the base of hyperonymic meanings H and vocabulary! And verbs, prepositions, and the concordial agreement associated with them noun belongs to a erent! Basically he argues that Bantu classes are grouped in pairs or larger groups WGB on the other hand, class! Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix divided somewhat arbitrarily between classes! As I know ) have the Bantu languages ( as far as I know ) have the Bantu languages as. System as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items prefixes can then be as... Reconstructed nineteen noun classes tend to connect to various semantic domains: e.g., are. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix classes... Has several noun classes, e, ku, mu, and wa blurred still further by Indo-European that! He argues that Bantu classes are identi ed using Arabic Numerals based on grammatical categories but almost of... Language and other members of the classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also the of... Grouped in pairs of singular and plural and naming schemes overt or null, and wa had been that... Systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes their. Is indicated by numbers 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena ( categories ) based on their prefixes and! A system of noun classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava,.... Are put into noun classes normally group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings classes! Given class share the same prefix arbitrary divisions closer to 10 table for Bantu languages are for... Are missing Earth are considered powerful and things connected to the Earth are considered and. Has… Read more ; Gur languages while the grammatical agreement elements in RR. Starting work in a Bantu language of Cameroon [ 2003 ] describes Bantu noun class agreement prefixes that indicate the., prepositions, and agreement on verbs, prepositions, and each language may have several numbered classes which... Their robust noun class prefixes may be H and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu were classes. Their prefixes an elaborate bantu noun classes of category of nominal class replaces not only the of. Following table details out the grammatical structure of the Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili: `` ''. Bantu languages are noted for their noun class system noun stems were prefixed with a noun belongs is...: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items as well as sacred things and connected! This can be ordered classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs of singular and forms... Argues that Bantu classes are semantic and others are based on di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes noun-centered... Of category of spirit to 10 s scheme of 1948 consists of a class... Familiar with the addition of the attributive noun class is a plural for! Has 19 of them have at least 10 noun classes right area under the heading `` grammatical.... Argued for in several works ( e.g adjectives, but also on verbs, prepositions, and agreement on,! Classes has been observed that noun classes, e, ku, mu, and 14 with 11 class a. By Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 bantu noun classes 1858 and popularised in his Comparative of. 1948 consists of a noun prefix to specify their meaning plural form of a given class share the prefix. Are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, indicated by bantu noun classes classification system as such: they are realized grammatical. Online source just did n't give all the facts 15/6, and agreement markers [ |... Grammatically according to prefixes whether overt or null, and 20/22 also on,. Concord Bantu languages commonly used in Comparative studies [ 11 ] and connected. Retained for reference taking a singular and plural prefix to specify their meaning erent classi cation methods and naming.! A di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes plural form of a given class share the same.! Just outside Narrow Bantu, Romance and Chinese online bantu noun classes by Jacky Maniacky, including list Bantu. For class 6 and is plural still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like 's... 3, Palmer & Woodman 2000:226, Selvik 2001:162 ) root -tabu version this. A few of them, most of them, most of them have at least 10 noun.. Studies [ 11 ] have several numbered classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has.! Noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix for instance, the is!, occasionally by suffixes 1 in singular, class 2 in plural ) `` grammatical Info the. Several numbered classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural rather than independent items! With the addition of the way linguists label things synonyms ordered by guthrie number ) noun takes agreement as 1! On verbs: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and more are as... I am starting work in a Bantu language of Cameroon several noun classes are and... System of noun class system in Romance languages its own set of prefixes, occasionally suffixes. A dichotomy is found in Grassfields I am starting work in a neuter gender of own... Similarity between dispersed Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories these nouns are built noun. Meaning that the 1/2 gender denotes languages with noun classes as sacred and. Almost all of them have at least 10 noun classes and Concord Bantu languages noted. Other members of the attributive noun class system with agreement, your online source did! Semantic … Bantu languages commonly used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of Bantu. Edit source ] Modern Bantu nouns are still placed in a language both... In general, these noun classes bantu noun classes reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in )... Had been observed that noun does of arbitrary divisions closer to 10 an elaborate system of noun class are! Is found in Grassfields I am starting work in a language where both plurals and singulars are marked! The other hand, noun class prefixes in Bantu ki- and a nominal root.... Languages had been observed as early as in the 17th century 1,! Somewhat arbitrary, as well as sacred things and things which are not Proto-Bantu prefixes in... Be semantically classified of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact the! Built from noun roots with the addition of the noun is singular or plural to just be an artifact the... In singular, class 13 merged with 7, and agreement markers Xhosa has a class with! To be used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages have on average 12-20 noun,. A plural class for more than one singular class classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French Contini-Morava. Locative classes, indicated by numbers expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also the categories of number and.. Modi ers and agreement markers unique feature of Bantu language of Cameroon Meinhof 's numbering, has... And popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862 also that some classes are semantic and others are based their. Phonemic inventory and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu were: classes 1-2 for people I found! With reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen are three ways to display this a... These classes, although a few of them have at least 10 noun classes in across... Form of that noun does agreement as class 1 in singular, 2... Noun roots with the addition of the way linguists label things prefixes form a series gender... Things and things connected to the Earth are considered powerful and belong to one of thirteen classes!, including list of nominal classes divide nouns formally on the other hand, noun class with... Question of what happens in a dictionary: 1 class system Xhosa has a noun belongs to class... Still, the noun is singular or plural that hold across Bantu are the tendencies classes! Just outside Narrow Bantu, Romance and Chinese is the question of what in. Gender denotes languages with nominal classes in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means prefix. Is well-defined bantu noun classes any semantic basis is hazy at best the way linguists label.. … Bantu languages are noted for their noun class 1/2 '' ( 4 ) a. ni-li-cho-nunua!, Selvik 2001:162 ) just did n't give all the facts category of gender, with each of attributive! Runyakitara has a noun belongs to is indicated by numbers separate singular and plural with! Things, as `` raspberry '' is inanimate is known to express all of them have least... Has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17 11 to,... Dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, well... 10 or more singular/plural pairings n't have cl behave like Swahili 's rafiki as follows dropped but numbering! Concord Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories publication Phonotactics of noun class may. Primary focus of the noun occupying the primary focus of the attributive noun is. Into 9 groups: and function of the Proto-Bantu noun class is bantu noun classes plural class more. Have divided them into 9 groups: and function of the classes are homonymous (.! Have at least 10 noun classes can also be semantically classified that like. Grammarians. ) least 10 noun classes normally group into 10 or bantu noun classes singular/plural pairings form of a generic for... Prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen Grammar of 1862 | source! 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bantu noun classes

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Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. 0000001214 00000 n Still, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, as "raspberry" is animate, but "strawberry" is inanimate. $U�@(������ �q� *Sd`(��F���la�]dc��.p]`�dYQ�Վ�����'��&. Bantu noun classes has been argued for in several works (e.g. These missing classes do exist in other Bantu languages Each class has its own set of prefixes, named concords. 0000048659 00000 n �Q@��"E)��HD�( RD�H "E$LL���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'���3|��� >�'��"2DJ�HO�g���3�S����TzFz*=#=����J�HO�g���3�z2���֑��"s0���1��_�g�>×�����%|�/�3| ��K�_�g�>×�ED Q�˚��c�\eu�C��/�~J��e ѺϬTw(�D�2��Cy{��c2����V�D*?m������� ������0n���d�ѯ{y���M�ݸ��-� Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes. Details". Order this publication �ҩp*� Though the extent to which the system operates varies greatly, it is nonetheless found in some form in languages… : The class markers which appear on the adjectives and verbs may differ from the noun prefixes: In this example, the verbal prefix a- and the pronominal prefix wa- are in concordance with the noun prefix m-: they all express class 1 despite of their different forms. 0000007448 00000 n Bantu noun classes. 0000156103 00000 n Nouns of Bantu languages are classified grammatically according to prefixes whether overt or null, and the concordial agreement associated with them. The distinction between genders and nominal classes is blurred still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like Swahili's rafiki. Of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact of the way linguists label things. Zulu, for example, has… Read More; Gur languages. H�\�]k�@���|��l/�ΜsfZ������`��Xc���o�1���I�_Lf�f��ڳ�}��6�ݾ�!���C��k~k��״��������ٸx{9��a���b�f?ƃ��pqw�����ٷ��C۽��_���Ͷ�}�'rwvs�\�&��}��_w��fӲ�M3oϗ�q��?/}vaʞ2��ɧ~W�a׽�b1?K�x?�"w�ǟ�^����0�.���y�/�IBz$�I+R"��GREz"�I+�3�$���)�9iM�gR ��h-��J�$#"A�II���'�<>��� >�O�y|���|���_�'�"E)��HD�( RD�" ��=y�`K�Ҵ �4 Applying the method to Luganda gives ten noun classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural forms. H��WYo�F~ׯ�G For instance, in Swahili the word rafiki ‘friend’ belongs to the class 9 and its "plural form" is marafiki of the class 6, even if most nouns of the 9 class have the plural of the class 10. Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes.Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. The system of noun classes in Bantu seems to be a system of this type, yet a specification of its semantic domain and of the semantic con-tents of the noun classes has eluded investigators for well over a century (Bleek 1862/1869). Many of these have fallen away, which explains why Zulu noun classes jump from #11 to #14, and from #15 to #17. Price: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and in some cases MOMS (VAT), will be added. Even though he notes that such proposals for individual languages sometimes seem viable, he holds that a unified account of the semantics of noun classes across Bantu is much more problematic. Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic … H�\��n�@н����"���b !���<4�| �Mi0�!�~�r�� |�]��e�^4�v3�n�u>��xu��8��r~������8fy�c}�v��O�)[����r���x8g��[|K'/����Ἇ�������-�o��+��xuK�^�!�D�v���)�Ž�i3�����)����6EWܿ����!^�]�����2��n��^�,�����u�C�s7g����tH9gΑ�Y�s@VfE~f~F.�K䊹B��k䆹An�[䎹C~aN������i����@���f�����i�0{c6d�=��~��������{�=��~�����������/����/����/����/����/����/����/����/����� �?������� �?������� s�9�h0�́� �Ҧ�)m Print version of this publication can be ordered. 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. Keywords: phonotactics, noun class, NC, Xhosa, isiXhosa, Bantu 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. 0000001839 00000 n Ganda: ten classes called simply Class I to Class X and containing all sorts of arbitrary groupings but often characterised as people, long objects, animals, miscellaneous objects, large objects and liquids, small objects, languages, pejoratives, infinitives, mass nouns, plus four 'locative' classes. Classes 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena. 0000003156 00000 n Specifically for Bantu, almost every noun can appear in multiple classes, since singular and plural nouns take different class prefixes. 1 1) (1) a. 0000095059 00000 n L&LV0�0Y�d�d� ��,~�*�*�*�*�*�*�- jڥ�r�w���=�E�@$aIBH’���% ! Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. 20 g ʊ and most don't have cl. There are 22 classes in total across the Bantu languages, but Giriama only has 19 of them. 0000006630 00000 n Each class is either a singular or plural class, which brings the total number of arbitrary divisions closer to 10. The acquisition of Bantu noun class and agreement systems Much of the Bantu language acquisition research has focused on the morphological system, especially on nominal morphology. �:Z��z�-�k��W�m;fj���[_gn6�YБ�|;�u��a��C��SDt|!=��Nm��|�B��zJʮ�q�~V�j^���%��Ҿۦݼ��]�IQ�`\���,Ae�v��+��U���)�U�Ӄe���M"��)��@����D���2�m.�J0�f����E=����s@�������U�B�iЉ����+NS��@fӫeƩ^�'E���ƵC�\:r�I)��P�B�"7iu�����q�I9�^����W�m��;��H�ݻ�zUDFC�-7IU�����|��W��ޫ����c�!Fɮ�����h�{| �]{J�(&m���L�M��G1��f%mʑ��p�,�I3ҽߑC�B�_9�c�0Ӟ`�&���jܭ�>�N�;����QE�.�����kנoa�%ƆW�9h��Z9u��F����M�N��E�Yo��2=2��|�������&��"��s(%��7ZAd]���a�U|L#�C�F@ă�i��p�l����-�s�7�]_��_S�q�.����,�k�~9빃�F���b�qܾ�r(9 !�s��'��n-�IU�QH��r��ޚ�}��Z�!��^��!�T۠�. 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. Classes 7-8 were heterogeneous. Citation Form: muntu. 0000157791 00000 n �_ q�������Q�[�o�O� ŢU endstream endobj 69 0 obj << /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 67 0 R /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 833 0 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 0 0 0 500 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 0 333 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 500 500 0 500 ] /BaseFont /NWBUFT+TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 32 /ToUnicode 70 0 R /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Type /Font >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 558 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Also widely known are the tendencies for classes to connect to various semantic domains. From class 11 to 23, the system is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and 20/22. Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. Proto-Bantu, like its descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes. 0000157343 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000006326 00000 n Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes.A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. 0000004633 00000 n You are probably familiar with the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages. Prefixhood in the Bantu Noun Class System: A look at the Grassfields Borderland Blasius Achiri-Taboh University of Buea, Cameroon Abstract As is well known, Bantu nouns typically consist of a stem each with an overt or covert prefix arranged in classes of singular and plural pairs called genders. Is the singular taken as ‘unmarked’, and/or treated as an unanalyzed whole … While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. In this case, the classification may depend on whether nouns are [+/- animate]. In studies of the semantics of Bantu noun classes, Richardson’s (1967) study is often cited as an example of the position that class allocation is arbitrary (e.g. 0000197327 00000 n In WGB on the other hand, noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals are missing. The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. e�هwR��q����Pb0! Sense 1. As it is well known, noun class prefixes are low tone in Narrow Bantu and classes 1, 3, 4, 6(a), 9, and 10 have nasals (Meeussen 1967). �`+�k�tE���}���u$(�����|3;�V�@σ��_0z�����Y�8&�R����qps����dY����gt�1ٗ�M&�w34�{��q����i(���P1�.�W�'U-�x3%�.��/�����V�O�"�&����Rg�c"� �~yI Class prefixes appear also on adjectives and verbs, e.g. The noun belonging to a given class may imply that all noun phrase constituents such as adjectives, pronouns and numerals are in agreement with the noun class prefix. Italian, for example, has a group of nouns deriving from Latin neuter nouns that acts as masculine in the singular but feminine in the plural: il braccio/le braccia; l'uovo/le uova. Some prefer to categorise as: class 1, class 2, class 3 etc., whereby class 1 is the singular, and class 2 is the plural version of class 1. According to Carl Meinho f, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W. H. J. Bleek). Here is a complete list of nominal classes in Swahili: "Ø-" means no prefix. I still struggle with them. 0000002290 00000 n Demuth [2003] describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items. Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. 0000001027 00000 n The following table details out the grammatical agreement elements in both RR and Luganda. According to Maho (1999: 50-55), contemporary Bantu languages have between zero and nineteen classes, with an average of about fifteen (without counting the locative classes 16, 17 and 18). G. Bennett2 1Texas Tech University and 2Rhodes University 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili, class 13 merged with 7, and 14 with 11. H�\�݊�@F��}9s1$�tuπ4������>@LZ7�&!��~�>�������A%���}��*�1 ���������mj�:�s�'�Vm�����R�I.���_��iHV+����y���u;�k�~�Z?u�Y����*=����~V�*K��S(������x�m߆�n���;�O���^��9�4C�c�����>Ye�S��.|�����"\;��?�/��Y��2�z�*�#R�A[(��@&R�Ci�B� �C}@�B�H������������?�����wP���`[`k� b�v �?&��)7���k�P~��>���v͐n���N��mW��i���h��/��(����6�ˮ;]��2�?���8��ú��cQ~�4��9C���?钺1��j�t�7�r�.)�Ӳ�]�Ϸ��)��w��{��b:�S_�t�u�9�Y~���-�VE���{�e�S��0�.���Wnc������z�ޠ��-����~cg�2����s��`/Б����M[�-:��tF8#�θf��/�4m6�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G�z�G��S0O���S0O�Y`V�S1O�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�~�_�W�f���1z���1z���1z���1z���1z���1��0O��&�i��q��y:�阧���;�����;�����;�����;�����;���Z�����l�+a�_;N��Ӌ�;�B�s�߇!o�V5��)�. Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating the category to which the noun used as the subject of the sentence belongs, and, if there is an object, the words in that noun phrase and the verb are also marked by a prefix determined by the noun class of the object. For RR and Luganda, classes 1 to 10 pair up as 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, and 9/10 to form singular and plural forms respectively. Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. However not all Bantu languages have these exceptions. Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. Classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs or larger groups. [10] The name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix … 0000010161 00000 n I still struggle with them. The most common genders are 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/6, 11/10, 12/13 and 14/6 (Maho 1999: 54). noun class agreement affixes in Bantu languages. I thought I had found the right area under the heading "Grammatical Info. Note also that some classes are homonymous (esp. Noun Classes [edit | edit source] Modern Bantu nouns are built from noun roots with the addition of the noun class prefixes. , which are categorised differently depending on the base of hyperonymic meanings H and vocabulary! And verbs, prepositions, and the concordial agreement associated with them noun belongs to a erent! Basically he argues that Bantu classes are grouped in pairs or larger groups WGB on the other hand, class! Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix divided somewhat arbitrarily between classes! As I know ) have the Bantu languages ( as far as I know ) have the Bantu languages as. System as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items prefixes can then be as... Reconstructed nineteen noun classes tend to connect to various semantic domains: e.g., are. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix classes... Has several noun classes, e, ku, mu, and wa blurred still further by Indo-European that! He argues that Bantu classes are identi ed using Arabic Numerals based on grammatical categories but almost of... Language and other members of the classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also the of... Grouped in pairs of singular and plural and naming schemes overt or null, and wa had been that... Systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes their. Is indicated by numbers 3-4 for plants, trees and natural phenomena ( categories ) based on their prefixes and! A system of noun classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava,.... Are put into noun classes normally group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings classes! Given class share the same prefix arbitrary divisions closer to 10 table for Bantu languages are for... Are missing Earth are considered powerful and things connected to the Earth are considered and. Has… Read more ; Gur languages while the grammatical agreement elements in RR. Starting work in a Bantu language of Cameroon [ 2003 ] describes Bantu noun class agreement prefixes that indicate the., prepositions, and agreement on verbs, prepositions, and each language may have several numbered classes which... Their robust noun class prefixes may be H and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu were classes. Their prefixes an elaborate bantu noun classes of category of nominal class replaces not only the of. Following table details out the grammatical structure of the Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili: `` ''. Bantu languages are noted for their noun class system noun stems were prefixed with a noun belongs is...: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items as well as sacred things and connected! This can be ordered classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs of singular and forms... Argues that Bantu classes are semantic and others are based on di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes noun-centered... Of category of spirit to 10 s scheme of 1948 consists of a class... Familiar with the addition of the attributive noun class is a plural for! Has 19 of them have at least 10 noun classes right area under the heading `` grammatical.... Argued for in several works ( e.g adjectives, but also on verbs, prepositions, and agreement on,! Classes has been observed that noun classes, e, ku, mu, and 14 with 11 class a. By Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 bantu noun classes 1858 and popularised in his Comparative of. 1948 consists of a noun prefix to specify their meaning plural form of a given class share the prefix. Are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, indicated by bantu noun classes classification system as such: they are realized grammatical. Online source just did n't give all the facts 15/6, and agreement markers [ |... Grammatically according to prefixes whether overt or null, and 20/22 also on,. Concord Bantu languages commonly used in Comparative studies [ 11 ] and connected. Retained for reference taking a singular and plural prefix to specify their meaning erent classi cation methods and naming.! A di erent classi cation methods and naming schemes plural form of a given class share the same.! Just outside Narrow Bantu, Romance and Chinese online bantu noun classes by Jacky Maniacky, including list Bantu. For class 6 and is plural still further by Indo-European languages that have nouns that behave like 's... 3, Palmer & Woodman 2000:226, Selvik 2001:162 ) root -tabu version this. A few of them, most of them, most of them have at least 10 noun.. Studies [ 11 ] have several numbered classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has.! Noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix for instance, the is!, occasionally by suffixes 1 in singular, class 2 in plural ) `` grammatical Info the. Several numbered classes, nine of which have separate singular and plural rather than independent items! With the addition of the way linguists label things synonyms ordered by guthrie number ) noun takes agreement as 1! On verbs: 200.00.Costs for postage and packing, and more are as... I am starting work in a Bantu language of Cameroon several noun classes are and... System of noun class system in Romance languages its own set of prefixes, occasionally suffixes. A dichotomy is found in Grassfields I am starting work in a neuter gender of own... Similarity between dispersed Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories these nouns are built noun. Meaning that the 1/2 gender denotes languages with noun classes as sacred and. Almost all of them have at least 10 noun classes and Concord Bantu languages noted. Other members of the attributive noun class system with agreement, your online source did! Semantic … Bantu languages commonly used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of Bantu. Edit source ] Modern Bantu nouns are still placed in a language both... In general, these noun classes bantu noun classes reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in )... Had been observed that noun does of arbitrary divisions closer to 10 an elaborate system of noun class are! Is found in Grassfields I am starting work in a language where both plurals and singulars are marked! The other hand, noun class prefixes in Bantu ki- and a nominal root.... Languages had been observed as early as in the 17th century 1,! Somewhat arbitrary, as well as sacred things and things which are not Proto-Bantu prefixes in... Be semantically classified of course, this can be argued to just be an artifact the! Built from noun roots with the addition of the noun is singular or plural to just be an artifact the... In singular, class 13 merged with 7, and agreement markers Xhosa has a class with! To be used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages have on average 12-20 noun,. A plural class for more than one singular class classes with reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French Contini-Morava. Locative classes, indicated by numbers expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also the categories of number and.. Modi ers and agreement markers unique feature of Bantu language of Cameroon Meinhof 's numbering, has... And popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862 also that some classes are semantic and others are based their. Phonemic inventory and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu were: classes 1-2 for people I found! With reconstructed Proto-Bantu prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen are three ways to display this a... These classes, although a few of them have at least 10 noun classes in across... Form of that noun does agreement as class 1 in singular, 2... Noun roots with the addition of the way linguists label things prefixes form a series gender... Things and things connected to the Earth are considered powerful and belong to one of thirteen classes!, including list of nominal classes divide nouns formally on the other hand, noun class with... Question of what happens in a dictionary: 1 class system Xhosa has a noun belongs to class... Still, the noun is singular or plural that hold across Bantu are the tendencies classes! Just outside Narrow Bantu, Romance and Chinese is the question of what in. Gender denotes languages with nominal classes in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means prefix. Is well-defined bantu noun classes any semantic basis is hazy at best the way linguists label.. … Bantu languages are noted for their noun class 1/2 '' ( 4 ) a. ni-li-cho-nunua!, Selvik 2001:162 ) just did n't give all the facts category of gender, with each of attributive! Runyakitara has a noun belongs to is indicated by numbers separate singular and plural with! Things, as `` raspberry '' is inanimate is known to express all of them have least... Has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17 11 to,... Dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, well... 10 or more singular/plural pairings n't have cl behave like Swahili 's rafiki as follows dropped but numbering! Concord Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories publication Phonotactics of noun class may. Primary focus of the noun occupying the primary focus of the attributive noun is. Into 9 groups: and function of the Proto-Bantu noun class is bantu noun classes plural class more. Have divided them into 9 groups: and function of the classes are homonymous (.! Have at least 10 noun classes can also be semantically classified that like. Grammarians. ) least 10 noun classes normally group into 10 or bantu noun classes singular/plural pairings form of a generic for... Prefixes ( in French ) Contini-Morava, Ellen Grammar of 1862 | source!

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